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t vio, diy

ISSN #0071-0733 J O U 4 N A L

of the ‘fi

ENTOMOLOGICAL __ BRITISH COLUMBIA~

Vol. 86 Issued Sepember 30, 1989

ECONOMIC

E.N. Punnett & M.L. Winston ~ A comparison of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies established from packages or nuclei in two areas of PemU@oluna Dias, CANADA oo es 6s b.e os ab via Wes a0, cca 0 Gia eieiel suerelee wisie'e le wieie sie 1 D.F. Mayer, C.A. Johansen, C.H. Shanks, Jr. & A.L. Antonelli ~ Methomyl insecticide and domesticated pollinators

GENERAL

R.A. Cannings ~ The robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of a Festuca grassland in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia

J.D. Wells & W.W. Cone ~ Biology of Erythroneura elegantula and E. ziczac (Homoptera:Cicadellidae) on Vitis vinifera in Southcentral Washington

L.C. Stuart, B.A. Butt & R.L. Bell ~ Effect of host phenology on ovipositional preference of winter form pear psylla (Homoptera:Psyllidae)

T.G. Gray & K.N. Slessor ~ Morphology, life history & identification of sex pheromone components of an undescribed species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) on Scots pine in British Columbia

R.I. Alfaro ~ Probability of damage to Sitka spruce by the Sitka spruce weevil, Pissodes strobi

S.M. Fitzpatrick ~ A potential collection method for Agapeta zoegana (Lepidoptera:Cochylidae), a knapweed-root-feeding moth

L. Coop, A. Knight & G. Fisher ~ Parasitism of orange tortrix on caneberry, Rubus spp. in western Oregon & Washington

TAXONOMIC

R.D. Kathman & D.R. Nelson ~ Pseudodiphascon arrowsmithi, a new species of tardigrade from British Columbia, Canada (Macrobiotidae:Eutardigrada:

F. Kozar, L.M. Humble, R.G. Foottit and I.S. Otvos ~ New and little known scale insects (Homoptera:Coccoidea) from British Columbia

S.G. Cannings ~ New records of slender winter stoneflies (Plecoptera:Capniidae) in British Columbia

J.A. Santiago-Blay ~ Chalcidoids (Hymenoptera) reared from Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) galls from British Columbia, Canada

A.R. Forbes & C.K. Chan ~ The aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of British Columbia 19. Further additions

R.A. Cannings & C.S. Guppy ~ Glover’s Silkmoth Hyalophora gloveri (Strecker) (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae), new to British Columbia

R.A. Cannings ~ An Asian hornet, Vespa simillima xanthoptera (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in North America

ERRATUM

ISSN #0071-0733 J O U it N AL

of the

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY of BRITISH COLUMBIA

Vol. 86 Issued Sepember 30, 1989

ECONOMIC

E.N. Punnett & M.L. Winston ~ A comparison of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies established from packages or nuclei in two areas of

Iritishy Colma C ange) gec.c ow crowns Sea Se eo Oe whe Nes ORE eee eee Sees 1 D.F. Mayer, C.A. Johansen, C.H. Shanks, Jr. & A.L. Antonelli ~ Methomyl insecticide and domesticated pollinators ............cc cee ce cece cs ececees 7 GENERAL R.A. Cannings ~ The robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of a Festuca grassland in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia ............ cece ececcccccsccceecs 14 J.D. Wells & W.W. Cone ~ Biology of Erythroneura elegantula and E. ziczac (Homoptera:Cicadellidae) on Vitis vinifera in Southcentral Washington ........ 26 L.C. Stuart, B.A. Butt & R.L. Bell ~ Effect of host phenology on ovipositional preference of winter form pear psylla (Homoptera:Psyllidae) ................ 34

T.G. Gray & K.N. Slessor ~ Morphology, life history & identification of sex pheromone components of an undescribed species of Choristoneura

(Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) on Scots pine in British Columbia ................ 39 R.I. Alfaro ~ Probability of damage to Sitka spruce by the Sitka spruce weevil,

PASS OMESUSEVOON SEE Aie tS gp USE ae aed tee lots BS Salas OE ARES 48 S.M. Fitzpatrick ~ A potential collection method for Agapeta zoegana

(Lepidoptera:Cochylidae), a knapweed-root-feeding moth ...............005. 25 L. Coop, A. Knight & G. Fisher ~ Parasitism of orange tortrix on caneberry,

Rubus spp. in western Oregon & Washington ............cececeececeececs 63

TAXONOMIC

R.D. Kathman & D.R. Nelson ~ Pseudodiphascon arrowsmithi, a new species of tardigrade from British Columbia, Canada (Macrobiotidae:Eutardigrada:

ari gr ada) tices ne CO tre Ie ete eweie aves Rate ene ohne Oe: 66 F,. Kozar, L.M. Humble, R.G. Foottit and I.S. Otvos ~ New and little known

scale insects (Homoptera:Coccoidea) from British Columbia ................ 70 S.G. Cannings ~ New records of slender winter stoneflies (Plecoptera:Capniidae)

HAP HIESNEC OLUMOIAY = ara eesveeiiniaes Sueaine oe cio natemecu ania ta aad oe ee eeRiCk 77 J.A. Santiago-Blay ~ Chalcidoids (Hymenoptera) reared from Artemisia tridentata

(Asteraceae) galls from British Columbia, Canada ...............0cceeeeeee 80 A.R. Forbes & C.K. Chan ~ The aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of British

Columbia 19. Further additions ¥ ¢4:a/26-4 1s awe swash see esle dw evens « eee ed be Mee 82 R.A. Cannings & C.S. Guppy ~ Glover’s Silkmoth Hyalophora gloveri (Strecker)

(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae), new to British Columbia .................0.0000- 89 R.A. Cannings ~ An Asian hornet, Vespa simillima xanthoptera (Hymenoptera:

NESpiGac) I. NOKMeA MeLICe, ...c.) sain seyi sae wstols niu a ayes cha dese aetna eee as 91 ERRATUM ree nas teen oc Pee eee ea Pane eee ne Lae 33

DIRECTORS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1988-1989

President Chris Guppy Royal B.C. Museum, Victoria

President-Elect David Raworth Agriculture Canada, Vancouver

Past President Murray Isman University of British Columbia, Vancouver

Secretary-Treasurer Kathy Millar R.R. 3, McLay Rd., Duncan, B.C. V9L 2X1

Editorial Committee (Journal) H.R. MacCarthy R. Ring D. Raworth

Editor (Boreus) R. Cannings

Directors K. Millar (2nd) R. Vernon (2nd) G. Salloum (Ist) B. Petersen (1st) R. Smith (1st) |

Hon. Auditor Chris Guppy

Regional Director of National Society Imre Otvos Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria

J. Enromo. Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989 1

A COMPARISON OF HONEY BEE (Apis mellifera L.) COLONIES ESTABLISHED FROM PACKAGES OR NUCLEI IN TWO AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

ELIZABETH NEILSON PUNNETT Mark L. WINSTON DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY BURNABY, B.C. CANADA V5A 186

SUMMARY

A comparison of the biological performance and economic returns from honey bee colonies established in April from either 0.9 kg packages or four-frame nuclei was made in both the Lower Fraser Valley and Peace River areas of British Columbia. In the Lower Fraser Valley, nuclei were superior to packages both biologically and economi- cally, while in the Peace River, no biological differences were found between the two, and packages provided higher economic returns. Either packages or nuclei would be viable in commercial beekeeping operations, depending on individual circumstances.

INTRODUCTION

A new honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony may be established in the spring from either a package or a nucleus. A package consists of 0.9-1.8 kg of bees (7,500-17,000 bees) plus a queen. The bees are transported in a wooden box covered on each side with wire screen to provide ventilation, with a metal can containing sugar syrup hung inside the box to feed the bees during transit. A nucleus consists of three to five frames of bees, brood, honey and pollen plus a queen, and is commonly transported in a cardboard box with a screened lid to allow for ventilation. Before the First World War, nuclei were widely used in the U.S. and Canada for establishing colonies. Fear of disease transmission reduced the demand, however, and the package bee business developed, so that packages purchased from shippers in the southern states replaced the nuclei used earlier (Johansson and Johansson 1970). Recently, a renewed interest in nuclei has been shown by beekeepers (Winston 1983). However, research on the comparative biological performance and economic returns to the purchaser from use of packages and nuclei is needed if nuclei are to be accepted commercially.

Nuclei are more expensive to purchase than packages; $35.00 for a four-frame nucleus versus $29.70 for a 0.9 kg package (McCutcheon 1984). In addition, nuclei must be inspected to ensure they are disease free, and standards for nuclei are not as precise as for packages. The bee population and brood, honey or pollen areas may vary greatly among producers of nuclei. However, nuclei have one principal advantage over packages. A nucleus contains drawn comb, stored honey and pollen, and, most importantly, brood, all of which should enhance early population growth. This may be a critical factor in regions with short growing seasons, as in most of Canada.

The objective of this research was to compare the biological performance and economic returns from 0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei established in April in both the Lower Fraser Valley and Peace River areas of B.C.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A. Lower Fraser Valley

This study was conducted from April to August 1984 at a single apiary site in Langley, in the Lower Fraser Valley area of southwestern British Columbia. A total of 20 colonies were established on 17 April, each in a single super (drawn comb) of standard Langstroth equipment (497 mm x 420 mm x 241 mm deep). Ten colonies were established from 0.9 kg packages and 10 colonies from four-frame nuclei. All colonies were headed by Italian (Apis mellifera ligustica L.) queens imported from Florida.

Colonies were managed throughout the season for honey production using standard techniques. A second brood super and either one or two honey supers were added as required (standard Langstroth equipment). Sixteen and a half liters of sugar syrup were fed to all

2 J. ENTOMOL Soc. Brir. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

colonies between 17 April and 26 May to facilitate colony growth. Oxytetracycline hydro- chloride mixed in icing sugar also was fed to all colonies from 22 April to 12 July for brood disease prevention.

Five colony characteristics (sealed brood, honey and pollen areas, colony weight, and frames of bees) were measured approximately every 21 days from 10 May to 1 August. Sealed brood, honey and pollen areas were measured using a plexiglass grid to estimate the area on each frame. All colonies were weighed with a tripod scale. Colony weight was determined by subtracting the weight of empty equipment from the tripod scale reading. The number of frames of adult workers was estimated by looking through the super from above and below to determine how many frames were covered by workers. Extracted honey was determined in August by weighing supers before and after frames of honey were extracted. All colonies were left with six full frames of honey after the honey removal in August. For economic analyses, honey was valued at $1.12 per kg, the average sale price of bulk honey in B.C. in 1984 (McCutcheon 1984). The purchase prices of 0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei were valued at $29.70 and $35.00 respectively (McCutcheon 1984).

Student’s t-test was used to test for significant differences between experimental treatments (P<0.05).

B. Peace River

On 17 April, 1984 ten 0.9 kg packages and ten four-frame nuclei were transported by truck to a 1500-colony commercial beekeeping operation in the Peace River region of British Columbia, and maintained throughout the season by the cooperating beekeeper, Dale Hansen. The packages and nuclei were established in a single super (drawn comb) of standard Langstroth equipment and managed throughout the season for honey production using standard techniques. All colonies were headed by Italian queens imported from Florida. Colonies were weighed twice during the season; 5 June and 3 July. Extracted honey was determined in August by weighing supers before and after frames of honey were extracted. The same figures listed in part A were used for economic analyses.

Student’s t-test was used to test for significant differences between experimental treatments (P<0.05).

RESULTS

A. Lower Fraser Valley

By 1 August the biological characteristics did not differ significantly between packages and nuclei (P>0.05) except for colony weight, where the nuclei weighed significantly more than the packages (P=0.02) (Fig. 1). Significant differences in biological characteristics occurred on various earlier measurement dates, with nuclei always recording higher measurements than packages. The nuclei produced significantly more honey than did the packages (P=0.03) (Fig. 1). Both nuclei and packages recorded deficits of $12.94 (Canadian) and $18.28 (Canadian) respectively (Table I).

B. Peace River

Colony weight on both measurement dates and extracted honey did not differ significantly between packages and nuclei (P>0.05) (Fig. 2 and 3). Packages provided higher incomes than nuclei, $57.77 (Canadian) and $52.36 (Canadian) respectively (Table I).

DISCUSSION

The results of this study suggest that both packages and nuclei are commercially viable in B.C., and which is used will depend on area and compatability with an individual’s beekeeping operation. By 1 August the packages and nuclei in the Lower Fraser Valley differed significantly only in colony weight and extracted honey (Fig. 1). The packages produced significantly less extracted honey than the nuclei, possibly due to a smaller fotaging force during the nectar flow. In the Langley area the major nectar flow is in July (McCutcheon 1982); on 20 June (approximately one week before the beginning of the nectar flow) and 12 July (during the nectar flow) the packages had a significantly smaller worker population than

J. ENTOMOL Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

Oy ‘ASNOH G3LOVYLX3S

Oy “LHOISM

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0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei in the Lower Fraser Valley. Standard errors are represented by bars above each histogram. (*

Figure 1: Biological (sealed brood, honey and pollen areas, frames of bees and colony weight) and economic (extracted honey) characteristics on five measurement dates for colonies established from

J. ENTOMOL Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

TABLE I

Incomes from colonies established from 0.9 kg packages and four-frame

Treatment Package Nucleus 40 30 © Ne = 6 20 LL =

10

nuclei in the Fraser Valley.

Purchase Extracted Honey Total Price Honey Income Income ($) (kg) ($) ($) 29.70 10.2 11.42 -18.28 35.00 19.7 22.06 -12.94

Figure 2: Colony weight on two measurement dates for colonies established from 0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei in the Peace River. (P>0.05 on both dates).

the nuclei, but both treatments were maintaining equivalent brood areas (Fig. 1). This meant that the packages had a greater proportion of their worker population involved in brood caring, resulting in a smaller foraging force. Previous research has reported the tendency of small colonies to allocate a high proportion of available resources to brood rearing, resulting in low honey production (Farrar 1968). The worker population in colonies started from packages peaked after the nectar flow (1 August) (Fig. 1), resulting in a significantly lower honey yield

than the nuclei.

J. Enromot Soc. Brrr. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989 5

80

60

40

20

EXTRACTED HONEY, KG

PACKAGE NUCLEI

Figure 3: Extracted honey for colonies established from 0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei in the Peace River. (P>0.05).

TABLE II

Incomes from colonies established from 0.9 kg packages and four-frame nuclei in the Peace River.

Purchase Extracted Honey Total Treatment Price Honey Income Income ($) (kg) ($) ($) Package 29.70 78.1 87.47 a1) Nucleus 35.00 78.0 87.36 52.36

The packages and nuclei in the Peace River were not monitored as closely as those in the Lower Fraser Valley. The colonies in the Peace River had only colony weight measured on two dates, and extracted honey determined at the end of the season. Packages and nuclei in the Peace River produced equivalent amounts of extracted honey (Fig. 3), whereas in the Lower Fraser Valley, nuclei produced significantly more extracted honey than packages (Fig. 1). This difference was probably due to the later honey flow in the Peace River, which begins in mid- July, two weeks later than in the Lower Fraser Valley. This allows packages to “catch up”’ to nuclei before the honey flow, thereby producing equivalent amounts of extracted honey. In the

6 J. ENTOMOL Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

Lower Fraser Valley, the honey flow began before the packages were as populous as the nuclei, and they did not produce as much extracted honey. The suitability of packages and nuclei for honey production would appear to be at least partially dependent on the timing of the honeyflow in an area. Had 1983 been a severe spring rather than mild in the Peace River, the nuclei may have performed better than the packages due to their initial advantage of brood and a slightly larger worker population (D. Hansen, personal communication).

Economically, the results from the Lower Fraser Valley and the Peace River also differed. In the Lower Fraser Valley, neither nuclei or packages provided an income (Table I), whereas both packages and nuclei provided incomes in the Peace River (Table IT). In the Lower Fraser Valley in 1984, a relatively poor year, nuclei and packages produced deficits of $12.94 and $18.28 respectively. In seasons with both a good nectar flow and good weather, both nuclei and packages may provide an income in the Lower Fraser Valley. Under such conditions nuclei would likely provide the greater income, since they have a larger foraging force available during the early honeyflow characteristic of the Lower Fraser Valley. In the Peace River, both packages and nuclei yielded incomes, but packages provided a higher income ($57.77) than nuclei ($52.36) due to their lower purchase price (Table ID.

The beekeeping operation in the Peace River to which the packages and nuclei were sent has traditionally been based on spring package management. The cooperating beekeeper found the nuclei more labor-intensive from the standpoint of transportation and installation (D. Hansen, personal communication), partly because his operation was set up to accommodate packages, not nuclei. In the Lower Fraser Valley study no difference was noted in ease of transportation of packages and nuclei, and the nuclei were considered to be easier to install than the packages.

Numerous researchers have made biological and economic comparisons between packages of different sizes established on different dates (reviewed in Nelson and Jay 1972). However, comparisons between packages and nuclei have been lacking. To our knowledge, this experiment represents the only comparison made between packages and nuclei. If Canadian beekeepers are to become self-sufficient, both packages and nuclei will have to be incorpo- rated into beekeeping operations. This preliminary research indicates that either packages or nuclei would be viable in commercial beekeeping operations, depending on individual circumstances. In the Lower Fraser Valley nuclei are superior to packages both biologically and economically, while in the Peace River, no biological differences were found between the two, and packages provided greater economic returns than nuclei. However, research for more than one season and in various beekeeping areas of the province is needed to establish the suitability of packages versus nuclei for honey production.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Linda Fergusson and Stephen Mitchell for field assistance; and to Dale Hansen for his cooperation and assistance in this project. Financial support was provided by British Columbia Science Council and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council grants (M.L. Winston, principal investigator) and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship (to E.N. Punnett).

REFERENCES

Farrar, C.L. (1968) Productive management of honey-bee colonies. Am. Bee J. 108: Nos. 3-10

Hansen, D. (1985) Personal communication

Johansson, T.S.K. and M.P. Johansson (1970) Establishing and using nuclei. Bee World 51:23-25

McCutcheon, D.M. (1982) Charting nectar flows and their use in bee management. British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Bee Notes

McCutcheon, D.M. (1984) Annual report 1984 apiculture program. British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Clearbrook, B.C.

Nelson, D.L. and S.C. Jay (1972) Population growth and honey yield studies of package bee colonies in Manitoba. 11. Colonies initiated with four package sizes on one date. Manitoba Entomologist 6:17-22

Winston, M.L. (1983) Research Review. British Columbia Honey Producers Association Newsletter, 4th Quarter,

p.7

J. ENToMo_ Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989 7

METHOMYL INSECTICIDE AND DOMESTICATED POLLINATORS!

D.F. Mayer, C.A. JOHANSEN2, C.H. SHANKS, JR.3, AND A.L. ANTONELLI* DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER PROSSER, WASHINGTON 99350

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to methomy]l sprays was greatest for the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Mega- chile rotundata (F.); least for the honey bee, Apis mellifera L.; and intermediate for the alkali bee, Nomia melanderi Cockerell. Methomy! at 1.12 kg (Al)/ha had low residual hazard to honey bees, and at 0.6 kg (AI)/ha it had low residual hazard to leafcutting and aklaki bees after one day. Field tests of methomy] on pollen-shedding corn, blooming red raspberry, and blooming blueberry resulted in reduced bee visitation and low adult bee mortality.

Insecta, Bees, Pollinators, methomyl

INTRODUCTION

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide available in wettable powder, dust, and liquid formulations. It kills as a contact or stomach poison and is registered for insect control on a large number of agricultural crops.

Bee poisoning or the killing of beneficial bees from pesticides is a serious problem for beekeepers in most parts of the world (Johansen and Mayer, 1989). For 35 years we have evaluated pesticides for their effects on bees and developed information to reduce bee poisoning (Mayer and Johansen, 1988).

This paper reports the results of research concerning the effects of methomy] on the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., alkali bee, Nomia melanderia Cockerell, and alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.). Also reported are the insecticide’s effects on honey bees when applied to pollen-shedding corn, blooming red raspberry, and blooming blueberry.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Small-scale Bioassays. Tests were conducted with different formulations and rates of methomyl on honey bees, alkali bees, and alfalfa leafcutting bees, from 1968 through 1987. Methomy] was applied to 0.004-ha plots of alfalfa with a Solo® backpack boom sprayer, using 1758 g/cm? pressure and 234 liters of water/ha. Treatments of field-weathered methomy] residues were replicated four times with four foliage samples per treatment and time interval. Samples consisting of about 500 cm? of foliage taken from the upper 15-cm portions of plants were placed in each plastic petri dish (15 cm diameter) whose tops and bottoms were separated by a wire screen (6.7 meshes/ cm) insert (45 cm long and 5 cm wide). The same procedure was used in the following tests: residual toxicity of methomyl combined with the stickers Adhere® and Plyac (both United Agr. Products, P. O. Box 1286, Greeley, CO 80632).

The residual toxicity of methomyl combined with the formamidine insecticide chlor- dimeform also was tested. Residual toxicity of repeated applications (4 times) of methomyl also was evaluated as was the effect of methomy] on alfalfa leafcutting bees of different ages. In one test, treated foliage was held in the lab in the dark at 18 or 29°C, or outdoors in 18-35°C variable day-night temperatures and daily sunlight. In still another test, 50 honey bees were placed in each of 4 cages as described above and methomy] was applied directly onto the bees.

FOOTNOTES

1 Washington State University, College of Agriculture and Home Economics Research Center. Work done under Projects 0742 and 1957.

2 1135 Oak Court, Coeur d’Alene, ID 83814.

3 Wash. State Univ., Southwestern Wash. Research Unit, 1919 N.E. 78th St., Vancouver, WA 98665.

4 Wash. State Univ., Western Wash. Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, WA 98371.

8 J. ENromot Soc. Brir. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

Worker honey bees were obtained from colonies and anesthetized with CO,. Prepupae of leafcutting bees and alkali bees, in leaf piece cells and soil cores, respectively, were incubated at 29-31°C and 60% RH. Emergent adults were trapped in canisters fitted with screen funnels and chilled to facilitate handling. Residue test exposures were replicated four times by caging 60 - 75 worker honey bees, 25 - 40 leafcutting bees, or 15 - 20 alkali bees with each of four foliage samples per treatment and time interval. Bees were maintained in cages at 29°C, 60%, RH and fed 50% sucrose solution (1:1) in a cotton wad (5 by 5 cm). Bee mortality was determined after 24 h. Abbott’s formula (Abbott 1925) was used to correct for mortality occurring in the untreated check. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques with mean separation by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1951).

Field Tests -- Corn. In 1973 methomy] was tested for bee toxicity on pollen-shedding ‘Jubilee’ sweet corn in a 4.5-ha field and in 1983 in a 55-ha field near Prosser, WA. In 1973, methomy] 90% soluble powder (SP) was applied by airplane before 0700 h on 3 Sept, using 0.5 kg (AD/ha in 45 liters of water. A 9-ha field 1 km away served as the untreated check. In 1983, methomyl 90% wettable powder (WP) was applied by helicopter before 0700 h on 2, 6, 10 and 14 Sept, using 0.5 kg (AI)/ha in 20 liters of water. A 55-ha field 1 km away served as the untreated check.

Honey bee colonies with Todd dead bee traps (2 in 1973; 6 in 1983) were located adjacent to the fields 3 days before the first application. In 1973 and 1983, the number of dead honey bees was recorded daily before and after the applications. In 1983, 25 dead bees from each colony were examined during each sample for tongues fully extended, and the data were recorded. Also in 1983, data on the number of corn pollen collectors per 25 foragers per colony for a total of 150 bees per sample were recorded. Colony conditions were evaluated before and after each application and at the conclusion of each test.

Field Tests -- Raspberries. In 1983, methomy] was tested for bee toxicity on blooming red raspberry near Vancouver, WA. Methomyl] 90 SP was applied at 0.5 kg (AI)/ha and at 1.0 kg (AD/ha to separate 0.02-ha plots of ‘Meeker’ red raspberry, and a separate 0.02-ha plot was left untreated. Applications were made on 26 July at 2000 h by ground equipment with a hooded- boom sprayer. Two weeks before the application, four honey bee colonies were placed near the center of the field. Bee numbers and foraging behavior were assessed in the plots during mid- afternoon of the first day after application and on days 2, 3, and 6 following application. The number of honey bees foraging on 14 meters (5 replications) of row were counted in each plot on each date.

On 27 July, at 0600 h, 200 blooms in each plot were covered with white paper bags, to exclude bees so that nectar samples could be taken. Three kinds of samples were taken from each plot: (1) 200 flowers that were rinsed in 200 ml of distilled water, (2) the’ rinse water drained from the flowers, and (3) 20 1 of floral nectar collected from each of 20 flowers. Samples were taken at 0800 h and 1200 h, frozen, and sent to E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company chemists for analysis of methomy] residues. We consistently obtained 15-20 |1liters of nectar per flower (av. 17) with 50% sugar content. Data were analyzed using ANOVA techniques with mean separation by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1951).

Field Tests -- Blueberry. Methomy] 1.8 soluble liquid (LS) (1.0 kg (AT/ha) was applied in 936 liters of mixed spray per ha at 1000 h on 16 April 1987. Biofilm wetting agent at the rate of 473 ml per 379 liters was added. The plots consisted of 9 x 8 m of ‘Berkeley’ blueberry in full bloom adjacent to six honey bee colonies. The weather was cool and overcast at 13°C with a light northwest wind at 11-13 kph. A few bumble bees were working in the blueberries, but no honey bees. Twenty white paper bags were placed on blooming tips in the treated plots and on tips in the check plots (33 m west and 33 m east) at 1230 h. The temperature increased to 14°C by 1600 h, but light rains started at 1630 h.

April 17 was cool and rainy and no honey bees were working. Nectar samples were extracted from the bagged blooms using a micropipet. There was an average of 10.2 liters of nectar per flower with an average 24% sugar content. On 18 April the weather was still cloudy with occasional light rains, but was suitable at times to observe honey bee activity. The number of honey bees foraging on 15 meters of row was determined for each plot.

J. ENromMot Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989 9

RESULTS

Small-scale Bioassays. Table 1 presents the means of bioassay tests done from 1968 through 1973. The mortality sequence for the three species was typical in that alfalfa leafcutting bees were most susceptible, alkali bees were intermediate in susceptibility, and honey bees least susceptible to methomyl. Bee susceptibility to an insecticide is a function of size or surface/volume ratio which is related to chance adherence of residues to the body of a forager (Johansen et al., 1983). The mortality of bees in 24 h continuous contact with treated foliage samples decreased as the age of residues increased. The 2% dust formulation was more hazardous than other formulations, causing 46 - 98% mortality one day after application. For the other formulations, the rates of 0.6 kg(AI/ha or lower caused less than 25% mortality of honey bees 3 h after application. The rate of 1.12 kg(AI)/ha caused 27% or lower mortality after 8 h. Methomyl 1.8 LS (0.3 kg/ha) and methomyl 90 WP (0.6 and 1.12 kg/ha) applied directly to honey bees caused 100% mortality.

Adding the sticker Adhere® significantly reduced mortality for all three bee species. Adding Plyac® did not always reduce bee mortality. Mayer et al. (1987) showed that adding the sticker Bond® to methomy] and Johansen (1972) showed that adding Evanol to methomyl resulted in reduced bee mortality.

Repeated applications of methomyl] at 5-day intervals caused increasing mortality with successive treatments (Table 3). For example, with honey bees, mortality for each application was 19, 28, 41, and 63%.

Adding chlordimeform 97% soluble powder (SP), a material essentially non-hazardous to bees (Mayer & Johansen, 1988), at 0.3 kg/ha to methomy] 1.8 LS at 0.3 kg/ha, resulted in a synergistic effect that increased honey bee mortality from 2 h residues by 72%.

Methomy] 1.8 LS (0.3 kg/ha) caused 51% mortality in 4-wk-old leafcutting bees but only 8% in 1-2-day-old bees. In general, older leafcutting bees that have been nesting for 3 or more weeks have increased susceptibility to poisoning by most insecticides (Mayer & Johansen, 1988).

Table 1. Mortality of alkali bees (AB), alfalfa leafcutting bees (LB), and honey bees (HB), exposed to different age residues of methomyl applied to field plots of alfalfa. Pullman, WA, 1968-1973.

Rate 24-h mortality (%) of bees caged with Methomy! (kg(AI) treated foliage at indicated Treatment? /ha) age of residues AB LB HB

3h 8h 24h 72h 3h 8h 24h 72h 3h 8h 24h 18LS 03 3 0 - - 13 5 0 - 2 O 0 18LS 06 24 £0 - - 23 6 Z - 235 0 0 18LS 1.12 61 38 19 - 86 59 65 . 43 10 3 25 WP 0.6 - - - - - - - - 20. Yo l 90 WP 0.6 47 8 - - 48 13 4 - 18 § ps) 90 WP 1.12 96 64 #40 16 83 73 #860 = 13 92 27 1 90SP 03 Oe 2 - - 11 3 a - 4 3 0 90SP 05 - - - - - - - - 26 #O 0 90SP 0.6 - - - - - - - - 1S as 0 90 SP 12h ne - - - - - - - 44 21 0 2% dust 0.6 - - - - 100 100 100 - 100 75 46 2% dust 1.12 100 90 84 - 100 100 88 - 100 98 98

aLS, liquid; WP, wettable powder; SP, soluble powder

10 J. ENTOMOL Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEPT. 30, 1989

Table 2. Mortality of alkali bees (AB), alfalfa leafcutting bees (LB), and honey bees (HB), exposed to different age residues of methomy] applied to field plots of alfalfa. Prosser, WA, 1987.

24-h mortality (%) of bees caged with

Rate treated foliage at indicated Treatment (kg (Al)/ha) time after treatment AB LB HB 2h 68h 2h SHO HB

Methomyl 90 WP_ 1.0 83a 78a 86a 50a 69a - 36a Methomy! 90 WP + 1.0 + 118 ml 34b «©26b )«=660b-)S 31b~—Ss:18b - 13b

Adhere Methomy! 90 WP + 1.0 + 118 ml 43b 39b 60b 63a = 21b - 3la

Plyac

Means within a column and year followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05; Duncan’s [1951] multiple range test).

Table 3. Mortality of alkali bees (AB), alfalfa leafcutting bees (LB), and honey bees (HB), exposed to residues of methomyl 1.8 LS (0.5 kg (AID/ha) from successive applications to plots of alfalfa. Pullman, WA, 1976.

24-h mortality (%) of bees caged with treated foliage at indicated

Treatment?/ time after treatment

AB LB HB

2h 2h 2h 8h Ist application 9a 36a 19a 4a 2nd application 22 b 52 b 28 a 11 b 3rd application 42¢ 54 b 41 b 16 b 4th application 89 d 55 b 62 Cc 62 c

Means within a column and followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05; Duncan’s [1951] multiple range test). a/ Application dates: 12, 17, 22, 27 June.

The effects of temperature and sunlight on methomy] activity against honey bees are shown in Table 4. Two- and 8-h residues held at 18°C and 29°C in constant dark caused significantly less mortality than the residues held in variable day-night temperatures and exposed to sunlight. This is the reverse of expected results (Johansen et al., 1983). Perhaps sunlight and heat caused the methomy! to break down to a more toxic product.

Field Tests -- Corn. In 1973, the Todd trap catches for the first 24 h after application averaged 13 bees next to the treated field and 20 in check colonies 1 km distant. Methomy] applied to pollen-shedding corn in 1983 resulted in no abnormal loss or perhaps a low kill (Table 5). Use of Todd dead bee traps on honey bee colonies has shown that up to 100 dead bees per day is anormal die-off, 200-400 is a low kill, 500-900 is a moderate kill, and 1000 or more is a high kill (Mayer & Johansen, 1983). Bees dying with tongues extended is often a sign

J. ENToMoL Soc. Brir. COLUMBIA 86 (1989), SEpr. 30, 1989 11

Table 4.

Mortality of honey bees exposed to different age residues of